Basic commands for Ubuntu


1.      ps -e: displays currently running processes
2.      cd /path/to/dir : changes current directory to dir
3.      cd .. : goes up one directory
4.      dir : lists directory content
5.      ls: lists directory content (slight different than 'dir' as 'ls' differentiate files and directory with colors)
6.      man command: displays manual for the command
7.      cp : copies file or directory
8.      mv: moves file or directory
9.      rm – filename: remove a file
10.  rm -r dirname : removes a directory and all its content
11.  mkdir foldername : make directory
12.  clear: clear the screen
13.  pwd: shows present working directory
14.  ~: home direcotry

1.      lsb_release -a : get Ubuntu Version (check this)
2.      uname -r: get kernel version
3.      uname -a: get all kernel information

1.      gedit: text-editor
2.      firefox: browser
3.      libreoffice: document editor

1.      ufw enable: turn on firewall
2.      ufw disable: turn off firewall
3.      ufw default allow: allow all connections by default
4.      ufw default deny : drop all connections by default
5.      ufw status: current status and rules
6.      ufw allow port: allow traffic on port
7.      ufw deny port: block port
8.      ufw deny from ip: block ip address
1.      apt-get update : refresh available updates
2.      apt-get upgrade : upgrade all packages
3.      apt-get dist-upgrade : upgrade with packages replacements; upgrade Ubuntu Version
4.      apt-get install <pkg> : install package
5.      apt-get purge <package> : uninstall package
6.      apt-get autoremove : remove obsolete package
7.      apt-get -f install : try to fix broken package
8.      wget : download file from given location

System Services
1.      system <name of service> status
2.      system <name of service> start
3.      system <name of service> stop
4.      system <name of service> restart
5.      system <name of service> runlevel

  Figure: The above figure shows the use of various service commands

1.      sudo : run command as root
2.      sudo -s : open a root shell

  1. fortune : Daily fortune
  2. cowsay <message> (install it "apt-get install cowsay")

 sl (apt-get install sl)

xcowsay (apt-get install xcowsay) 

rev <word or sentence> (this will reverse word or sentence)
fortune | cowsay (pipelining 'fortune command' with cowsay)

   yes <messege> (this will keep displaying the messege)
toilet <message>
cmatrix (apt-get install cmatrix)


espeak ( a speech synthesizer for English (and several other languages) which will convert text to speech.)
 bb (get ready for movie)


This article/tutorial is written by Janak Kumar Lal, ICTV DDC Rautahat. For feedback, please comment on the article below.
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About Author (Janak Lal)

This portal "ICT for Local Bodies" is written by various individuals - ICT Experts and ICT Volunteers working under MoFALD/LGCDP with an aim of integrating ICT at Local Governance. The author is this post is mentioned at the end of the article itself (with their Google+ profile alongside). Learn more about ICT4LB KMDB here.